Sunday, December 1, 2013



– Achieve objectives through and with people

– Identify and utilise resources – Optimum

– Plan, Analyse, Interpret, colloborate

– educate, problem solver

– communicator, build team

– change agent, chief executive

  1. FIGUREHEAD:  The Manager performs ceremonial and symbolic duties as head of the organisation;
  2. LEADER: Fosters a proper work atmosphere and motivates and develops subordinates;
  3. LIASION: Develops and maintains a network of external contacts to gather information;
  4. MONITOR: Gathers internal and external information relevant to the organisation;
  5. DISSEMINATOR: Transmits factual and value based information to subordinates;
  6. SPOKESPERSON: Communicates to the outside world on performance and policies.
  7. ENTREPRENEUR: Designs and initiates change in the organisation;
  8. DISTURBANCE HANDLER: Deals with unexpected events and operational breakdowns;
  9. RESOURCE ALLOCATOR: Controls and authorises the use of organisational resources;
  10. NEGOTIATOR: Participates in negotiation activities with other organisations and individuals.


1. Management as a continuous process:
Management can be considered as a process because it consists of planning, organizing, activating and controlling the resources (personnel and capital) of an organization. So they are used to the best advantage in achieving the objectives of the organization.
None of the managerial functions would produce the ultimate results in the absence of all other basic functions. Hence we can say that management is a continuous process.
2. Management as a discipline:
Since the boundaries of management are not exact as that of any other physical sciences, it may not fit in very well for being addressed as discipline. However its status as a discipline increases because it continuously discovers many aspects of business enterprises and also passes on the verified knowledge to the practitioners of the managerial process.
3. Management as a career:
As a career or occupation, management is a broad concept- Management itself can be regarded as a career, but it also presents a variety of interesting and challenging careers focused on specialized occupations in the fields such as marketing, finance and personnel.
4. Management as an Applied Science:
Even though management is a science so far as it possesses a systematized body of knowledge and uses scientific methods of research, it is not an exact science, like natural sciences which deal with living phenomena such as botany and medicine.
Hence, management is definitely a social science like economics or psychology and has the same institutions which these and other social sciences have.
5. Universal Application:
Management is a universal activity, applied to any form of activity, economic or otherwise.
6. Goal Oriented:
Management has the task of attaining certain objectives. The success or failure of the management depends on how far it is able to attain the desired goals. It is judged by the extent to which it achieves its targets.
7. Guidance:
The main task of the management is guidance in the utilization of material and human resources in the best possible way. Through optimum utilization of resources it has to ensure that the objectives are attained. The essential element of management is that it gets the work done by coordinating the performance of those who actually perform diverse and specific jobs.
8. Divorced from proprietorship:
Management does not signify proprietorship. In earlier days, management and enterprise were lumped into the same factor. It now refers to a specialized group of people who have acquired the ability to carry out a project.
9. An activating factor:
Management is the factor which activates other factors of production. A manager's skill lies in motivating his workers through guidance, training, incentives, rewards, status, security, control, etc. So a mangers' ability lies in the fact that he is able to motivate others to apply their skill to the best advantage of the enterprise in the accomplishment of its objectives.
10. Management is a human activity:
Management functions are discharged only by individuals. No corporate body or an artificial being can perform the work of a management. Although it is an activity which may be performed by an individual it cannot be seen. It can only be felt.
11. Management signifies authority:
Since the essence of management is to direct, guide and control, it has to have authority. Authority is the power to compel others to work and behave in a particular manner. Management cannot discharge its function without authority. It is the foundation of management. Since management has authority it stands at a higher pedestal.
12. Leadership:
The management has to lead a team of workers. It must be capable of inspiring, motivating and winning their confidence.


• F.W. Taylor - “Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheepest way”.

• Henry Fayol – “To Manage is to forecast, to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.

• Peter F.Drucker –”Management is work and as such it has its own skills, its own tools and its own techniques”.

• Koontz -  “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people”.

Objectives of Management

  1. Maximum Results with Minimum Efforts 
  2. Higher Efficiency
  3. Relations with Suppliers
  4. Satisfaction of Customers
  5. Contribution to National Goals
  6. Better Working Conditions
  7. Better Workforce

Importance of Management

• Accomplishment of 
• Effective Utilisation 
of Resources
• Development of 
Society and Nation
• Harmony in Work 
among employees
• Providing Vision and 
• Sound Organisation 
to accomplish 
• Help the Employees 
in Achieving Personal 

  • Administration: Concerned with laying down of 
    corporate policy, obtaining finance, production 
    & distribution.
  • Management: Concerned with actual execution 
    of policies policies within limits set by administration administration..
  • Organization: Combines the work in such a way 
    with individuals/groups that duties formed 
    provide best possible application of available 

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

The Johari Window

The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. A four paned "window," as illustrated above, divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades, which can move as an interaction progresses.

In this model, each person is represented by their own window. Let's describe mine:

1. The "open" quadrant represents things that both I know about myself, and that you know about me. For example, I know my name, and so do you, and if you have explored some of my website, you know some of my interests. The knowledge that the window represents, can include not only factual information, but my feelings, motives, behaviors, wants, needs and desires... indeed, any information describing who I am. When I first meet a new person, the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large, since there has been little time to exchange information. As the process of getting to know one another continues, the window shades move down or to the right, placing more information into the open window, as described below.

2. The "blind" quadrant represents things that you know about me, but that I am unaware of. So, for example, we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot. If you now tell me that I have something on my face, then the window shade moves to the right, enlarging the open quadrant's area. Now, I may also have blindspots with respect to many other much more complex things. For example, perhaps in our ongoing conversation, you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. You may not say anything, since you may not want to embarrass me, or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. Then the problem is, how can I get this information out in the open, since it may be affecting the level of trust that is developing between us? How can I learn more about myself? Unfortunately, there is no readily available answer. I may notice a slight hesitation on your part, and perhaps this may lead to a question. But who knows if I will pick this up, or if your answer will be on the mark.

3. The "hidden" quadrant represents things that I know about myself, that you do not know. So for example, I have not told you, nor mentioned anywhere on my website, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is. This information is in my "hidden" quadrant. As soon as I tell you that I love "Ben and Jerry's Cherry Garcia" flavored ice cream, I am effectively pulling the window shade down, moving the information in my hidden quadrant and enlarging the open quadrant's area. Again, there are vast amounts of information, virtually my whole life's story, that has yet to be revealed to you. As we get to know and trust each other, I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. This process is called: "Self-disclosure."

4. The "unknown" quadrant represents things that neither I know about myself, nor you know about me. For example, I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place. Being placed in new situations often reveal new information not previously known to self or others. For example, I learned of the Johari window at a workshop conducted by a Japanese American psychiatrist in the early 1980's. During this workshop, he created a safe atmosphere of care and trust between the various participants. Usually, I am terrified of speaking in public, but I was surprised to learn that in such an atmosphere, the task need not be so daunting. Prior to this event, I had viewed myself and others had also viewed me as being extremely shy. (The above now reminds me of a funny joke, which I cannot refrain from telling you. It is said that the number one fear that people have is speaking in public. Their number two fear is dying. And the number three fear that people have, is dying while speaking in public.) Thus, a novel situation can trigger new awareness and personal growth. The process of moving previously unknown information into the open quadrant, thus enlarging its area, has been likened to Maslow's concept of self-actualization. The process can also be viewed as a game, where the open quadrant is synonymous with the win-win situation.

Much, much more has been written on the Johari window model of human interaction. The process of enlarging the open quadrant is called self-disclosure, a give and take process between me and the people I interact with. Typically, as I share something about myself (moving information from my hidden quadrant into the open) and if the other party is interested in getting to know me, they will reciprocate, by similarly disclosing information in their hidden quadrant. Thus, an interaction between two parties can be modeled dynamically as two active Johari windows. For example, you may respond to my disclosure that I like "Cherry Garcia" by letting me know what your favorite ice cream is, or where a new ice cream shop is being built, kinds of information in your hidden quadrant. Incidentally, it is fattening, so be careful on how much you eat!


A group is able to share experiences, to provide feedback, to pool ideas, to generate insights, and provide an arena for analysis of experiences. The group provides a measure of support and reassurance. Moreover, as
a group, learners may also plan collectively for change action. Group discussion is a very effective learning method.

Participation is a fundamental process within a group, because many of the other processes depend upon participation of the various members. Levels and degrees of participation vary. Some members are active
participants while others are more withdrawn and passive. In essence, participation means involvement, concern for the task, and direct or indirect contribution to the group goal. If members do not participate,
the group ceases to exist. Factors which affect members participation
- The content or task of the group- is it of interest, importance and
- The physical atmosphere - is it comfortable physically, socially and psychologically?
- The psychological atmosphere - is it accepting, non-threatening?
- Member’s personal preoccupations - are there any distracting thoughts in their mind?
- The level of interaction and discussions - is adequate information provided for everyone to understand? - is it at a level everyone understands?
- Familiarity - between group members- do members know each other from before?

Communication within a group deals with the spoken and the unspoken, the verbal and the non-verbal, the explicit and the implied messages that are conveyed and exchanged relating to information and ideas, and

Two-way communication implies a situation where not only the two parties talk to each other, but that they are listening to each other as well. It helps in
- Clarification of doubts, confusions and misconceptions
- Both parties understanding each other
- Receiving and giving of feedback
It indicates the degree of respect between the two parties Helpful hints for effective communication
1. Have a circular seating arrangement so that everyone can see and interact with everyone else
2. If there are two facilitators, they should sit apart so that communication flow is not in one direction
3. Respect individuals- let everyone call everyone else by name respectfully
4. Encourage and support the quiet members to voice their opinions
5. Try and persuade the people who speak too much to give others a chance
6. Ensure that only one person speaks at a time or no one else will be heard
7. Discourage sub groups from indulging in side talk

Problem solving:

Most groups find themselves unable to solve problems because they address the problem at a superficial level. After that they find themselves blocked because they cannot figure out why the problem occurred and
how they can tackle it. Therefore an effective problem solving procedure would be to:
1. Clearly define the problem: Is it what appears on the surface or are there deep hidden aspects?
2. Try to thoroughly explore and understand the causes behind the problem
3. Collect additional information, from elsewhere if necessary, and analyze it to understand the problem further
4. The group should suspend criticism and judgment for a while and try to combine each other's ideas or add on improvements. The objectives should be to generate as many ideas and suggestions as possible.
This is called "brainstorming" in a group, when individuals try lateral thinking.

Leadership involves focussing the efforts of the people towards a common goal and to enable them to work together as one. In general we designate one individual as a leader. This individual may be chosen from within or appointed from outside. Thus, one member may provide leadership with respect to achieving the goal while a different individual may be providing leadership in maintaining the group as a group. These roles can switch and change.

Transactional Analysis

What is Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis (TA) is a personality and psychotherapy for personal growth. It has wide applications in Clinical Psychology, organizations and education also.
Dr.Eric Berne, the originator of TA, considers a transaction as the unit of social intercourse. A transaction consists of a transactional stimulus (TS) and a transactional response (TR). TS is the behavior (verbal or nonverbal) produced by one person in acknowledgement of the presence of others when two or more people encounter each other. TR is the response to TS by another person.
Ego States
In his encounters with his clients, Dr. Berne understood that there exist three distinct states in all people. People change from one state to another in the course of their transactions. This change can be easily noticed by the manners, appearances, words, gestures, and tones.
The three distinct states called the ego states are the Parent ego state, the Adult ego state, and the Child ego state. The Parent ego state is produced by the play-back of recordings in the brain of unquestioned or imposed external events perceived by the person before his social birth i.e., before the age of 5 years. This ego state consists of NO's, DON’T's, HOW -TO's and the facial expressions, tone of voice, manners etc. of the person's parents. In other words, this ego state consists of the "taught - concepts" of life.
The Child ego state is the response the little person produced to what he saw, heard, felt and understood. Most of these are feelings because the child has not developed verbal responses at that time. In other words, this ego state may be considered the collection of "felt-concepts" of life.
 The Parent ego state begins with the biological birth of the individual and extends up to and age of five years. The Child ego state also starts with the physical birth and continues to develop until the social birth (around the age of five).
The Adult ego state develops after both the Parent and the Child ego states have began to develop. This state begins to develop from about ten months of age. The function of this state is to update both Parent data and Child data by continuous examination of these data with respect to actual reality. Thus only those taught concepts and felt-concepts applicable and appropriate to the present are accepted. Thus the Adult state is said to be the "thought-concepts" of life.
Fig -1 PAC System

 Berne opines that the recordings in the brain that causes the ego states cannot be erased at all, but "we can choose to turn these recordings off".
Berne represents the ego states as circles and represents TS and TR by arrows drawn from the respective ego state of the first person to that of the second person.

Types of Transactions
Berne identifies two types of transactions:
1. Complementary Transactions
Complementary transactions
Examples of Complementary Transactions
·  Parent-Parent, Adult-Adult, Child-Child, Child-Parent, Parent-Child, Child-Adult, Adult-Child, Adult-Parent, Parent-Adult

First Rule of Communication
We have the first rule of communication in TA :
"When TS and TR on the P-A-C diagram make parallel lines, the transaction can go on indefinitely."

Fig 2. Parent-Parent Transaction
(Complementary Transaction)
2. Crossed Transactions
·  Examples of Crossed Transactions
Adult-Adult and Parent-Child; Adult-Adult and Child-Parent; Parent-Child and Parent-Child; Child-Parent and Child-Parent
Second Rule of Communication
Here we have the second rule of communication in TA:
"When TS and TR in the P-A-C diagram cross each other, communication stops."

Fig.3 Parent-Child and Child-Parent
(Crossed Transaction)

Duplex Transaction
There can be implied communications along with the primary communications. Eg., "Where did you hide the can-opener?" Here the main stimulus is Adult-Adult. But the word hide has an implied stimulus elicited from the Parent of the communicator to the Child of the receiver. This type of communication is called duplex transaction. The duplex transaction (the implied TS or TR) in the transactional diagram is represented by broken arrows.

Fig.4 Adult-Adult with Parent-Child and Child-Parent
(Duplex Transaction)

Personality and Psychopathology According to P-A-C system
There are two ways in which people differ according to TA. This is either due to contamination or exclusion.
In contamination, the P-A-C system overlaps. For example, when Parent and Adult overlap, we have a Parent contaminated Adult. This results in Prejudice. When Adult and Child overlap, we have a Child contaminated Adult. This condition causes delusion.

Fig.5 Contaminated Adult
(Prejudice and Delusion)

In exclusion, the communication from one of the P, A, or C is cut off. For example, when Child is cut off, the person cannot play at all and is very rigid and serious, causing neurotic behavior. When the Parent is cut off, the person does not have any conscience at all. If his Adult is also contaminated with Child, the person will be psychopathic.

Fig.6. PAC system with Child cut-off

 According to this system, psychosis results when the Adult is completely blocked from Parent and Child. This is called decommissioned Adult. If the blocking out of Adult is periodic, the result is Manic-Depressive personality.

Fig.7. The Decommissioned Adult
( Psychosis)

Sunday, July 24, 2011

Business Process Reengineering

What is reengineering? 

“Reengineering is the  fundamental  rethinking and  radical redesign of business  processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed[4].” The key words in the preceding definition are the italicized ones.  
BPR advocates that enterprises go back to the basics and reexamine their very roots. It doesn’t believe in small improvements. Rather it aims at total reinvention. As for results: BPR is clearly not for companies who want a 10% improvement. It is for the ones that need a ten-fold increase. According to Hammer and Champy [4], the last but the most important of the four key words is the word-‘process.’ BPR focuses on processes and not on tasks, jobs or people. It endeavors to redesign the strategic and value added processes that transcend organizational boundaries. 

Business process reengineering (often referred to by the acronym BPR) is the main way in which organizations become more efficient and modernize. Business process reengineering transforms an organization in ways that directly affect performance.

The Impact Of BPR On Organizational Performance

The two cornerstones of any organization are the people and the processes. If individuals are motivated and working hard, yet the business processes are cumbersome and non-essential activities remain, organizational performance will be poor. Business Process Reengineering is the key to transforming how people work. What appear to be minor changes in processes can have dramatic effects on cash flow, service delivery and customer satisfaction. Even the act of documenting business processes alone will typically improve organizational efficiency by 10%.

How To Implement A BPR Project

The best way to map and improve the organization's procedures is to take a top down approach, and not undertake a project in isolation. That means:

    • Starting with mission statements that define the purpose of the organization and describe what sets it apart from others in its sector or industry.
    •     Producing vision statements which define where the organization is going, to provide a clear picture of the desired future position.
    •     Build these into a clear business strategy thereby deriving the project objectives.
    •     Defining behaviours that will enable the organization to achieve its' aims.
    •     Producing key performance measures to track progress.
    •     Relating efficiency improvements to the culture of the organization
    •     Identifying initiatives that will improve performance.
    Consolidated Methodology: 
       A consolidated methodology has been developed from the five methodologies previously presented and an 
    IDEF0 model was developed to provide a structured approach and to facilitate understanding. But for the sake of 
    brevity, we have shown only the major activities in the IDEF0 model in Figure 1. In the ensuing section, we deal 
    with the details of our methodology.

     Activity #1: Prepare for Reengineering: 
    “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail”. Planning and Preparation are vital factors for any activity or event to 
    be successful, and reengineering is no exception. Before attempting reengineering, the question ‘Is BPR necessary?’ 
    should be asked? There should be a significant need for the process to be reengineered. The justification of this need 
    marks the beginning of the Preparation activity[9]. 

    This activity begins with the development of executive consensus on the importance of reengineering and 
    the link between breakthrough business goals and reengineering projects. A mandate for change is produced and a 
    cross-functional team is established with a game plan for the process of reengineering. While forming the crossfunctional team, steps should be taken to ensure that the organization continues to function in the absence of several 
    key players[5]. As typical BPR projects involve cross-functional cooperation and significant changes to the status 
    quo, the planning for organizational changes is difficult to conduct without strategic direction from the top. The 
    impact of the environmental changes that serve as the impetus for the reengineering effort must also be considered 
    in establishing guidelines for the reengineering project. Another important factor to be considered while establishing 
    the strategic goals for the reengineering effort, is to make it your first priority to understand the expectations of your 
    customers and where your existing process falls short of meeting those requirements. Having identified the customer 
    driven objectives, the mission or vision statement is formulated. The vision is what a company believes it wants to 
    achieve when it is done, and a well-defined vision will sustain a company’s resolve through the stress of the 
    reengineering process. It can act as the flag around which to rally the troops when the morale begins to sag and it 
    provides the yard stick for measuring the company’s progress[4, 9]. 

    Activity #2: Map and Analyze As-Is Process: 
    Before the reengineering team can proceed to redesign the process, they should understand  the existing 
    process. Although some BPR proponents (in particular Hammer and Champy) argue against analyzing the current 
    enterprise, saying that it inhibits the creative process, that might not always hold true[1]. It varies from case to case. 
    While some organizations which are in dire straits might go the Hammer and Champy way (attempt a new process 
    design while totally ignoring the existing processes) most organizations need to map the existing processes first, 
    analyze and improve on it to design new processes. The important aspect of BPR (what makes BPR, BPR) is that the 
    improvement should provide dramatic results. Many people do not understand the value of an As-Is analysis and 
    rather prefer to spend a larger chunk of their valuable time on designing the To-Be model directly. What follows is 
    an illustration that illustrates this fallacy. 
     A large manufacturer spent six million dollars over a period of one year in a bid to develop a parts-tracking 
    system and was all set to go online. Only then did he realize that he had totally overlooked a small piece of 
    a phone call.’ But just because this small yet vital information had not been documented all his efforts added up to 
    information – ‘the mode of transmission of information between the scheduling staff and the shop floor was through 
    naught and the whole system that he had so painstakingly developed had to be scrapped. Alas! He had recognized 
    the need for an As-Is analysis, way too late[1]. 
     The main objective of this phase is to identify disconnects (anything that prevents the process from 
    achieving desired results and in particular information transfer between organizations or people) and value adding 
    processes[9]. This is initiated by first creation and documentation of Activity and Process models making use of the 
    various modeling methods available. Then, the amount of time that each activity takes and the cost that each activity 
    requires in terms of resources is calculated through simulation and activity based costing(ABC). All the groundwork 
    required having been completed, the processes that need to be reengineered are identified. 

    Activity #3: Design To-Be process:
    The objective of this phase is to produce one or more alternatives to the current situation, which satisfy the 
    strategic goals of the enterprise. The first step in this phase is benchmarking. “Benchmarking is the comparing of 
    both the performance of the organization’s processes and the way those processes are conducted with those relevant 
    peer organizations to obtain ideas for improvement[7].” The peer organizations need not be competitors or even 
    from the same industry. Innovative practices can be adopted from anywhere, no matter what their source. 
    Having identified the potential improvements to the existing processes, the development of the To-Be 
    models is done using the various modeling methods available, bearing in mind the principles of process design. 
    Then, similar to the As-Is model, we perform simulation and ABC to analyze factors like the time and cost involved. 
    It should be noted that this activity is an iterative process and cannot be done overnight. The several To-Be models 
    that are finally arrived at are validated. By performing Trade off Analysis the best possible To-Be scenarios are 
    selected for implementation. 

    Activity #4:Implement Reengineered Process: 
    The implementation stage is where reengineering efforts meet the most resistance and hence it is by far the most difficult one[2]. If we expect that the environment would be conducive to the reengineering effort we are sadly mistaken. The question that confronts us would be,’ If BPR promises such breath taking results then why wasn’t it adopted much earlier?’ We could expect to face all kinds of opposition - from blatantly hostile antagonists to passive adversaries: all of them determined to kill the effort. When so much time and effort is spent on analyzing the current processes, redesigning them and planning the migration, it would indeed be prudent to run a culture change program simultaneously with all the planning and preparation. This would enable the organization to undergo a much more facile transition. But whatever may be the juncture in time that the culture change program may be initiated, it 
    should be rooted in our minds that ‘winning the hearts and minds of everyone involved in the BPR effort is most vital for the success of the effort[10]. Once this has been done, the next step is to develop a transition plan from the As-Is to the redesigned process. This plan must align the organizational structure, information systems, and the business policies and procedures with the redesigned processes. “Rapid implementation of the information system that is required to support a reengineered business process is critical to the success of the BPR project. The IDEF models that were created in the As-Is can be mapped to those created during the To-Be and an initial list of change requirements generated. Additional requirements for the construction of the To-Be components can be added and the 
    result organized into a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Recent developments in BPR software technologies enable automatic migration of these WBS activity/relationships into a process modeling environment. The benefit here is that we can now define the causal and time sequential relationships between the activities planned[9].” Using prototyping and simulation techniques, the transition plan is validated and it’s pilot versions are designed and demonstrated. Training programs for the workers are initiated and the plan is executed in full scale. 

    Activity #5: Improve Process Continuously: 
     A process cannot be reengineered overnight. A very vital part in the success of every reengineering effort lies in improving the reengineered process continuously. The first step in this activity is monitoring. Two things have to be monitored – the progress of action and the results. The progress of action is measured by seeing how 
    wherein the process is remapped, reanalyzed and redesigned. Thereby continuous improvement of performance is 
    much more informed the people feel, how much more commitment the management shows and how well the change 
    ensured through a performance tracking system and application of problem solving skills. Continuous improvement 
    (TQM) and BPR have always been considered mutually exclusive to each other. But on the contrary, if performed 
    simultaneously they would complement each other wonderfully well. In fact TQM can be used as a tool to handle 
    the various problems encountered during the BPR effort and to continuously improve the process. In corporations 
    that have not adopted the TQM culture as yet, application of TQM to the newly designed processes should be 
    undertaken as a part of the reengineering effort[8]. 
    teams are accepted in the broader perspective of the organization. This can be achieved by conducting attitude 
    surveys and discrete ‘fireside chats’ with those initially not directly involved with the change. As for monitoring the 
    results, the monitoring should include such measures as employee attitudes, customer perceptions, supplier 
    responsiveness etc[12]. Communication is strengthened throughout the organization, ongoing measurement is 
    initiated, team reviewing of performance against clearly defined targets is done and a feedback loop is set up